Testicular cancer starts in the male gland known as a testicle or testis (two are called testicles, or testes). Though it can affect a man or boy at any age, it is most often found in men age 15 to 44 years. It’s fairly rare and very treatable. With early diagnosis, testicular cancer can be cured. With treatment, the risk of death from this cancer is small.

To catch this cancer early, men are encouraged to do a testicular self-exam monthly and talk with a health care provider if there is a suspicious lump, swelling, or pain in the area.


Signs of a testicular tumor are:

  • A painless lump in the testicle (the most common sign)

  • Swelling of the testicle (with or without pain) or a feeling of weight in the scrotum

  • Pain or a dull ache in the testicle, scrotum or groin

  • Tenderness or changes in the male breast tissue

If you find any lump or firm part of the testicle, you should see a doctor to find out if it is a tumor. Very few men who have testicular cancer felt pain at first.

Men with the highest risk are:

  • Men with a father or brother who had testicular cancer

  • Men with a history of testes that do not drop before birth (also known as undescended testes or cryptorchidism)

  • Abnormal cells in the testicle called germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS), most often found during an infertility test